Hydroponics basins provide much more fertile environment than soil and any crops planted in them will grow much more quickly. Still, they do have some disadvantages. The first is that they need of power to operate, without which the crops planted in the basin will slowly die. Due to this power need, hydroponic crops are at risk during certain power-affecting Events like solar flares and conduit explosions. Since they are machines, these basins are capable of breaking down. The other disadvantage is the limited selection of crops that can be grown hydroponically. Currently, only potatoes, rice, strawberries, cotton, hops, smokeleaf, psychoid, and healroot can be grown in hydroponics basins.
The basin provides only soil fertility. All other plant growth conditions must still be met. Plants require light during the day and need a temperature within their comfortable range. Sun lamps are required if you're growing indoors as they are the only artificial lighting source that provides enough lighting for plant growth. Standing lamps only provide 50% lighting, not enough for growth. Plants also need heat when it's cold and cooling when it's too hot. Just outside of their comfortable range, plants will not grow at 100%. Too far outside of that range, they will die.
To build the basins, you first need to research them at a research bench.